Wavy projections formed at the open end of a cup or shell in the course of deep drawing because of difference in directional properties. Also termed scallop.
The formation of scallops (ears) around the top edge of a drawn part caused differences in the directional properties of the sheet metal used.
Nondestructive testing method in which eddy-curent flow is induced in the test object. Changes in the flow caused variations in the object are reflected into a near coil or coils for subsequent analysis suitable instrumentation and techniques.
A method where the raw or slit edges of strip metal are passed or drawn one or more times against a series of files, mounted at various angles. This method may be used for deburring only or filing to a specific contour including a completely rounded edge.
Edge Strain or Edge Breaks
Creases extending in from the edge of the temper rolled sheet.
Many types of edges can be produced in the manufacture of flat rolled metal products. Over the years the following types of edges have become recognized as standard in their respective fields. . Copper Base Alloys- Slit, Slit and Edge Rolled, Sheared, Sawed, Machined or Drawn . Sheet Steels or Aluminum Sheet- Mill Edge, Slit Edge or Sheared Edge. . Strip Steels and Stainless Strip . No. 1 Edge A- Smooth, uniform, round or square edge, either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified, width tolerance +/- .005. . No. 2 Edge- A natural sound mill edge carried through from the hot rolled band. Has not been slit, filed, or edge rolled. Tolerances not closer than hot-rolled strip limits. . No. 3 Edge - Square, produced slitting only. Not filed. Width tolerances close. . No. 4 Edge - A round edge produced edge rolling either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. Not as perfect as No. 1 edge. Width tolerances liberal. . No. 5 Edge - An approximately square edge produced slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr. . No. 6 Edge - A square edge produced square edge rolling, generally from square edge hot-rolled occasionally from slit strip. Width tolerances and finish not as exancting as No. 1 edge.
The dressing of metal strip edges rolling, filing or drawing.
Maximum stress that a material will stand before permanent deformation occurs.
The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of stress.
The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of the stress.
Dimensional changes accompanying stress where the original dimensions are restored upon release of the stress.
Electocleaning (Electrolytic Brightening)
An anodic treatment. A cleaning, polishing, or oxidizing treatment i which the specimen or work is made the anode in a suitable electrolyte; an inert metal is used as cathode and a potential is applied.
Electric Furnace Steel
Steel made in any furnace where heat is generated electrically, almost always arc. Because of relatively high cost, only tool steels and other high-value steels are made the electric furnace process.
Galvanizing Electro deposition of zinc on steel.
Electrolytic Tin Plate
Black Plate that has been Tin plated on both sides with commercially pure tin electrodeposition.
Electron Beam Microprobe Analyzer
An instrument for selective chemical analysis of a small volume of material. An electron beam bombards the area of interest and x-radiation there emitted is analyzed in a spectrometer.
The production of a thin coating of one metal on another electodeposition. It is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge its useful functions. Various plated metal and combinations therof are being used for different purposes, to illustrate: 1. Decorative and protection against corrosion..............copper, nickel and chromium . 2. Protection against corrosion.......................................cadmium or zinc . 3. Protection against wear..............................................chromium . 4. Build-up of a part or parts undersize............................chromium or nickel . 5. Pate for rubber adhesion.............................................brass . 6. Protection against carburization and for brazing operations....copper and nickel
Improving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface electrochemical dissolution.
Increase in length which occurs before a metal is fractured, when subjected to stress. This is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length and is a measure of the ductility of the metal.
In tensile testing, the increase in the gauge length, measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length, usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.
Elongation After Fracture
In tensile testing, the increase in the gauge length measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length and usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.
Raising or indenting a design in relief on a sheet or strip of metal passing between rolls of desired pattern.
Same as fatigue limit.
Maximum alternating stress which a given material will withstand for an infinite number of times without causing fatigue failure.
Induced orientation of the lattice of a crystal of a surface deposit the lattice of the substrate crystal.
A graphical representation of the temperature, pressure and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they exist under conditions of thermodynamical equilibrium. In condensed systems, pressure is usually considered constant.
A structure in which the grains have approximately the same dimensions in all directions.
Similar to the Olsen Test. Readings are in millimeters.
A cupping test in which a piece of sheet metal, restrained except at the center, is deformed a cone-shaped spherical-end plunger until fracture occurs. The height of the cup in millimeters at fracture is a measure of the ductility.
A chemical solution used to etch a metal to reveal structural details.
Subjecting the surface of a metal to preferential chemical or electrolytic attack to reveal structural details.
In metallography, the process of revealing structural details the preferential attack of reagents on a metal surface.
(1) An isothermal reversible transformation in which a solid solution is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids, the number of solids formed being the same as the number of components in the system. (2) An alloy having the composition indicated the eutectoid point on an equilibrium diagram. (3) An alloy structure of intermixed solid constituents formed a eutectoid transformation.
Steel representing the eutectoid composition of the iron-carbon system, with about 0.80% to 0.83% carbon, the eutectoid temperature being about 1333 (degrees) F. Such steel in the annealed condition consists exclusively of pearlite. Steels with less than this quota of carbon are known as hypo-eutectoid and contain free ferrite in addition to the pearlite. When more carbon is present, the steel is known as hyper-eutectoid and contains free cementite. The presence of certain elements, such as nickel or chromium, lowers the eutedtoid carbon content.
A type of corrosion that progresses approximately parallel to the outer surface of the metal, causing layers of the metal to be elevated the formation of corrosion product.
Hardened and tempered, blue polished. Carbon content about 1.00, Chromium .17. Used for the expanders in oil piston rings. Hardness 30 N 70 to 73. Range of sizes run for grooves 3/32 to 1/4 wide with the steel approximately .003 less than the grooves and thickness from .012 to .020.
An apparatus for indicating the deformation of metal while it is subjected to stress.
The measurement of deformation during stressing in the elastic range, permitting determination of elastic properties such as properties such as proportional limit, proof stress, yield strength the offset method and so forth. Requires the use of special testing equipment and testing procedures such as the use of an extensometer or the plotting of a stress-strain diagram.
Extra Hard Temper
In brass mill terminology, Extra Hard is six B&S numbers hard or 50.15% reduction from the previous annealing or soft stage.
Extra Spring Temper
In brass mill terminology. Extra Spring is ten numbers hard or 68.55% reduction in thickness from the previous annealing or soft stage.
Shaping metal into a chosen continuous form forcing it through a die of appropriate shape